Bipolar Disorder: Types, Symptoms, Causes & Diagnosis

Bipolar Disorder is the cause of mood swings in most people. Awareness of it among people is too rare so whenever people suffer from it then they do not have any idea what is happening to them. We are again here to educate the most intelligent species on the entire globe. Here you would get to know about bipolar disorder diagnosis, the signs, causes, and much more pieces of information regarding this disorder. Having proper knowledge would help individuals to cope with the problems in the most efficient manner before involving in a more intense situation. 

You can help yourself and the people around you by having proper knowledge of it. Read and understand the whole information provided and ask yourself? Am I also suffering from this disorder? If yes, then follow the precaution to avoid it.

What is Bipolar Disorder?

Earlier it was called manic depression, it is a type of mental illness that is responsible for mood swings and changes in thinking, sleep, energy levels, and behavior including emotional highs and lows which are mania/hypomania and depression respectively. Like the south and north poles, it has also two poles high pole and a low pole that’s why it is known as Bipolar Disorder. There is a condition in which they feel normal this is called Euthymia. 

A person who suffers from this health issue becomes too happy and energetic in a movement and on the other phase becomes sad, and hopeless and loses interest in daily work. It is a condition that stays with a person for whole life and the frequency of it may be multiple times in an hour, weeks, months, or weeks. We can control this illness through multiple processes like medications, talk therapy, and by bringing change to the daily routine. 

Types

Various types of this disorder are responsible for instant mood swings. Every type has different identities, symptoms, and cures. 

Here are 4 types of disorders mentioned below:

Bipolar I Disorder

In this condition, you may have to consult a doctor. Here you have extreme ‘up’ and extreme ‘down’ periods which could last for a week or two weeks. Mania and depression both could occur but the diagnosis of depression is not so important as compared to mania.

Bipolar II Disorder

In this condition, a person might experience hypomania or depression. In Bipolar II Disorder they do not experience the harsh conditions as in Bipolar I Disorder. 

Cyclothymic Disorder

Here manic or depressive periods may take place. Sufferers of it have an unstable mood for long period.  It is not as extreme as bipolar I, or II disorder. It stays for 2 years in adults and 1 year in children and teenagers.

Unspecified/other specified disorder

Here person experiences the symptoms very mildly compared to manic or hypomanic episodes. If a person does not consult a doctor for bipolar I, II, or cyclothymic disorder and still, experiences mood swings then this condition falls under Unspecified/other specified disorder.

Note:- Rapid cycling does not fall into the category of it but it is a condition in which mood swings are experienced by a person more than 4 times in 1 year. 

Symptoms

These are never observed in a fixed pattern in this disorder. A person might feel low or high for some time and then just the opposite of it. We find different symptoms in every individual.

Here are some symptoms of it for both mania and depressive period:

Mania/hypomania (High)Depressive Period (Low)
Excitement & happinessHopelessness & Sadness
Instant change (enjoyable to angry)Lose or gain weight 
Losing FocusIrritability
Less need for sleep Require more sleep
Unusually high sex driveLess sex drive
Making great and unrealistic plansInsomnia
Poor judgmentSuicidal thoughts
Alcohol & drug abuseCrying (uncontrolled)
Showing impulsive natureForgetfulness
Easily distractedHard to make decisions
RestlessnessEnergy losing or fatigue

Note:- Mania is more extreme than hypomania and creates more problems in public places like schools/colleges/offices etc. Their symptoms are merely similar. Mania may require the help of the doctor.

Causes

There are lots of misconceptions about its cause among people and the point is that even scientists are not sure about its causes. Still, they do believe that it is inherited from the family. There are a few more factors scientists believe in, these are as follows:- 

  • A CT scan of the brain can not let us know the reason for it but researchers have figured out some changes and patterns in the brain structure of a normal person or a person having bipolar disorder.
  • Another factor might be any sudden unexpected event that results in trauma and stress. This may include the death of loved ones, severe illness, financial problem, and many more issues. These things might play a crucial role to give birth to this disorder.

Diagnosis

If you find these mentioned symptoms in you or your family then try to optimize your psychiatric health with the help of family, friends, or a professional psychiatrist. 

Here are a few diagnosis criteria that a doctor implements on a sufferer:

  • Physical exam: On the behalf of your symptoms doctors would do lab tests and physical examination to identify the actual medical problem.
  • Psychiatric Convo: If there would be a need then the doctor can send you to the psychiatrist to have an assessment on the behalf of your past experiences. They might also ask a lot of questions from the people you spend most of the time with. 
  • Symptoms tracking: Every day how everything goes up. Tracking your sleeping cycle, emotions, and sudden mood changes.
  • Matching Symptoms: The psychiatrist would compare the criteria for bipolar disorder with your tracked symptoms.

Conclusion

We have covered every necessary aspect of bipolar disorder. It is a mental illness that causes mood swings and changes in thinking and sleeping. Its types are bipolar I, Bipolar II, Cyclothymic, and Unspecified/other specified bipolar disorder. Signs may include happiness, sadness, etc. Genetics or an Unexpected incident may cause it. We need to talk to our family and friends regarding this to cope with this biological disorder. This disorder might be found in the child as well as people in their 40s and 50s but the average age of starting is 25.

Do you know someone who is suffering from this disorder? Try to talk to them about their problems and the issues they are facing, this initiative could help them a lot. 

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